What is QUID?
QUID stands for Quantitative Ingredient Declaration. In certain circumstances, it is necessary to state on the label the quantity, in percentage terms, of an ingredient or category of ingredients used in the manufacture or preparation of a foodstuff. The percentage quantity should be:
- in the name of the food,
- next to the name of the food, or
- be in the list of ingredients.
It applies to all foods, including beverages, with more than one ingredient unless especially exempt. It also applies to those products exempt from ingredients listing. For these products, the ingredient quantity will need to be given close to the name of the product.
When does it apply?
It is necessary to state the quantity, as a percentage, on the label where the ingredient or category of ingredient is:
- included in the name of the food, e.g., ‘ham and mushroom pizza’ - the ham and mushroom need to be quantified. The ingredients list might therefore appear as follows:
Ingredients: Wheat flour, ham (10 %), mushrooms (6 %), tomatoes, onions, garlic, yeast
- usually associated with the name of the food, e.g., for ‘chilli con carne’, the minced beef needs to be quantified. This could appear as:
Ingredients: Tomatoes, kidney beans, minced beef (30 %), onions, celery, garlic, pepper, salt
- emphasised on the label in words, pictures or graphics, e.g., a food emphasising ‘with butter’ needs to quantify the butter
- essential to characterise and distinguish the food from products with which it may be confused because of its name or appearance, e.g., the composition of marzipan may vary between Member States, although it is still marketed under the same name, so the almonds need to be quantified.
When does QUID not apply?
Ingredients or categories of ingredients need not be quantified where:
- a solid foodstuff is presented in a liquid medium, e.g., kidney beans in salt water. In such cases, the drained net weight and the total net weight must be given so the quantity of kidney beans present can be easily calculated
- existing legislation requires the quantity of the ingredient or category of ingredient in question to be given, e.g., the fruit content of fruit nectar must be declared under the legislation relating to fruit juices
- the quantity of an ingredient or category of ingredient used in small quantities for the purposes of flavouring, e.g., garlic in garlic bread
- the ingredient or category of ingredient is in the name but is present in such a small quantity that it does not affect the consumers’ purchasing decisions, e.g., malt whiskey – there is no need to give the percentage of malt as this is not going to influence the consumers’ decision to buy the product
- no ingredient or category of ingredient significantly dominates by weight, such as in a mixture of fruit or vegetables
In addition, a picture on the label given as a serving suggestion would not normally be regarded as giving special emphasis and hence not require a QUID.
How is QUID calculated?
QUID is calculated on the basis of the recipe at the moment the ingredients are added, i.e., at mixing bowl stage. The weight of the ingredient to be declared is divided by the total weight of all the ingredients and multiplied by 100 to give the % QUID value. However, where food has lost moisture following treatment such as cooking, or gained weight due to, for example, oil absorption during frying, the QUID declaration should correspond to the quantity of the ingredient in the finished product.
To calculate the % QUID for minced beef in a chilli con carne, first add up the ingredients at the mixing bowl stage.
Ingredients at mixing bowl stage:
Minced beef 300 g
Kidney beans 200 g
Tomatoes 500 g
Onion 50 g
Celery 20 g
Garlic 20 g
Spices 5 g
Black pepper 3 g
Salt 2 g
Total weight 1,100 g
Now determine the amount of weight lost during cooking
Total wt at mixing bowl (1,100 g) - Total wt after cooking (1,000 g) = 100 g moisture lost through cooking
% QUID = wt of mince beef (300 g)/total weight of finished product (1,000 g) x 100 = 30 %
What if the % QUID value exceeds 100 %?
In certain cases the quantity of an ingredient can exceed 100 % of the finished product due to a large loss of water during processing. As this could be confusing for the consumer, the declaration should be replaced by the weight of the ingredient used to prepare 100 g of the finished product.
To calculate the % pork in a cooked ham product:
Weight of pork used to make the ham = 1,000 g
Final weight of ham after brining = 1,500 g
Moisture lost during cooking = 600 g
Final weight of cooked ham = Final wt before cooking (1,500 g) - Final wt after cooking (600g) = 900 g
% QUID for pork in the ham = Wt pork at mixing bowl stage (1,000 g)/Wt of final product (900 g) x 100 = 111 %
Instead of declaring the % QUID value, in this case the QUID should be declared instead as ‘product prepared using 111 g pork per 100 g of cooked ham’
What about QUID declarations for concentrated or dehydrated products?
The quantity of ingredients used in concentrated or dehydrated form and reconstituted during manufacture, may be indicated on the basis of their proportion by weight as recorded before their concentration or dehydration. For example, where egg powder is used as an ingredient, but reconstituted before being added to the final product, the weight of the reconstituted egg would be used to calculate the % QUID.
In the case of concentrated or dehydrated foods which are intended to be reconstituted by the addition of water, the quantity may be indicated on the basis of the proportion by weight in the reconstituted product.
How should the calculated QUID value be declared on the label?
The QUID declaration is an average quantity, obtained by complying with the recipe and good manufacturing practice, allowing for the producer’s normal manufacturing variations. The stated quantity should be rounded to the nearest whole number, or to the nearest 0.5 decimal place where the quantity declared in below 5 %.
Further guidance on QUID can be found in EU Notice on the application of QUID (2017)