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Monitoring of Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents

In setting the general rules on monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents, Directive 2003/99/EC (this opens in a new tab) requires that European Union Member States collect relevant and comparable data in order to identify and characterise hazards, to assess exposures and to characterize risks related to zoonoses and zoonotic agents.

Monitoring must take place at the stage or stages of the food chain most appropriate to the zoonosis or zoonotic agent concerned, that is:

  • 1. at the level of primary production; and/or
  • 2. at other stages of the food chain, including in food and feed.

Monitoring must cover zoonoses and zoonotic agents listed in Annex I, Part A to Directive 2003/99/EC (this opens in a new tab) and where the epidemiological situation in a Member State so warrants, zoonoses and zoonotic agents listed in Annex I, Part B must also be monitored. Whilst priority is given to those zoonoses posing the greatest risk to human health, the monitoring systems must also facilitate the detection of emerging or newly emerging zoonotic diseases and new strains of zoonotic organisms.

Zoonoses and zoonotic agents listed in Annex 1 (Part A) which must be included in monitoring

  • brucellosis and agents thereof
  • campylobacteriosis and agents thereof
  • echinococcosis and agents thereof
  • listeriosis and agents thereof
  • salmonellosis and agents thereof
  • trichinellosis and agents thereof
  • tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis
  • verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Zoonoses and zoonotic agents listed in Annex 1 (Part B) which must be monitored according to the country's epidemiological situation

  • Viral zoonoses

            1. calicivirus

            2. hepatitis A virus

            3. influenza virus

            4. rabies

            5. viruses transmitted by arthropods

  • Bacterial zoonoses

            1. borreliosis and agents thereof

            2. botulism and agents thereof

            3. leptospirosis and agents thereof

            4. psittacosis and agents thereof

            5. tuberculosis other than in point A

            6. vibriosis and agents thereof

            7. yersiniosis and agents thereof

  • Parasitic zoonoses

           1. anisakiasis and agents thereof

           2. cryptosporidiosis and agents thereof

           3. cysticercosis and agents thereof

           4. toxoplasmosis and agents thereof

  • Other zoonoses and zoonotic agents