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Food Contaminants

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Food Contaminants

Please note that legislation on contaminants is spread across several different areas of legislation, so it is recommended that you carefully read the entire section.

  • Definition of a contaminant

    A 'contaminant' is defined in legislation (Regulation (EEC) No 315/93) as any substance not intentionally added to food which is present in such food as a result of the production (including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine), manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination.

  • EU list of contaminants
  • EU legislation

    This section provides an overview of the main requirements laid down in the legislation relevant to contaminants in food.

    The general European Union (EU) principles on contaminants in food are set down in Council Regulation No 315/93/EEC of 8 February 1993 laying down Community procedures for contaminants in food (OJ L 37, p1 13/02/1993), as amended.

    A 'contaminant' for the purposes of Regulation No. 315/93/EEC, as amended is defined as: 'any substance not intentionally added to food which is present in such food as a result of the production (including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine), manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination'.

    Contaminants are chemical hazards, and as such should be identified and adequately controlled in accordance with the requirements laid down in Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, as amended. Please see section on Hygiene of Foodstuffs.

    Any food containing a contaminant in an amount which is unacceptable from a public health viewpoint and in particular, at a toxicologically significant level must not be placed on the market. Furthermore, contaminant levels must be kept as low as can be reasonably achieved by following good agricultural, fishery and manufacturing practices.

    Regulation No. 315/93/EEC, as amended, does however not apply to contaminants which are the subject of more specific Union rules (e.g., pesticide residues, residues of veterinary medicines).

    To protect public health, Regulation No. 315/93/EEC, as amended, requires that maximum levels be set for certain contaminants as part of a non-exhaustive EU list. This list is set out in the Annex to Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2023/915 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, as amended.

    To note - other legislation containing provisions on contaminants

    Regulation (EC) No. 2023/915 does not provide an exhaustive list of all maximum limits set for contaminants in food.

    • Maximum limits for certain contaminants can be set in commodity-specific standards (vertical legislation, e.g., food of animal origin, spirit drinks, honey, caseins and caseinates, instruments pertaining to infant formulae)
      • Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for infant formula and follow-on formula and as regards requirements on information relating to infant and young child feeding, as amended.
      • Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey, as amended. Please see the section on Honey.
      • Regulation (EU) 2019/787 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on the definition, description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks, the use of the names of spirit drinks in the presentation and labelling of other foodstuffs, the protection of geographical indications for spirit drinks, the use of ethyl alcohol and distillates of agricultural origin in alcoholic beverages, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 110/2008, as amended. Please see the section on Spirit Drinks.
      • Directive (EU) 2015/2203 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to caseins and caseinates intended for human consumption and repealing Council Directive 83/417/EEC. Please see the section on Caseins and Caseinates.
      • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin, as amended. Please see section on Specific Hygiene Rules for Food of Animal Origin.
      • Legislation on water - please see section on Water.
    • Measures other than maximum limits have been set for some contaminants. For acrylamide, benchmark limits have been set in addition to maximum limits, which fall under a different legal framework, i.e., the hygiene legislation. For dioxins, action limits have been set in addition to maximum limits:
    • Specific purity criteria (e.g., food additives), specifications (e.g., novel foods) and restrictions for undesirable substances (e.g., flavourings and food contact materials) have been set in other legal instruments and may contain maximum limits for contaminants. Please see the following sections on Food Additives, Novel Foods, Flavourings and Materials and Articles in Contact With Foodstuffs.
    • There are temporary increased controls for some foods of non-animal origin imported or consigned from certain third countries. This is due to a known or emerging risk, or because of widespread non-compliance with food law.  Annex I of Regulation 2019/1793 on the temporary increase of official controls and emergency measures governing the entry into the Union of certain goods from certain third countries (please see the section on Food of non-animal origin) lists the food of non-animal origin subject to a temporary increase of controls at border control posts. This list is reviewed by the Commission at least twice a year.
    • Some contaminants, due to historical use as pesticide, are covered in pesticides legislation (e.g., legacy pesticides, such as DDT; mercury compounds, copper compounds). Please see the section on Pesticides Residues in food.
    • For some contaminants more extensive or specific national legislation also exists that is not currently covered by EU legislation, however, any existing national provision is automatically superseded once EU legislation has come into force.
      • Health (Arsenic & Lead in Food) Regulations, 1972 (S.I. No. 44 of 1972); Health (Arsenic & Lead in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992 (S.I. No. 72 of 1992): these regulations set an overall maximum limit for lead and arsenic in food (with some exceptions), and food specific maximum limits. There are however overlaps with EU Regulations, and in those cases, the maximum limit set in Regulation (EC) No 2023/915 supersede the national limit.
      • Health (Erucic Acid in Food) Regulations, 1978 (S.I. No. 123 of 1978); Health (Erucic Acid in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992 (S.I. No. 67 of 1992); European Communities (Erucic Acid in Food) (Method of Analysis) Regulations, 1982 (S.I. No. 271 of 1982): these Regulations specify limits for the erucic acid content of oil and fat and of food to which oil or fat has been added. The method of analysis determines the erucic acid content of oils, fats and compound foodstuffs to which oils and fats have been added. The maximum limits set by these Regulations have been superseded by Regulation (EC) No 2023/915 and Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for infant formula and follow-on formula and as regards requirements on information relating to infant and young child feeding, as amended.
      • Health (Tin in Food) Regulations, 1993 (S.I. No. 389 of 1993): these Regulations stipulate that the level of tin in food shall not exceed 200 milligrams per kilogram of food. However, more strict maximum limits have been set in Regulation (EC) No  2023/915 which supersede this maximum limit.
      • Health (Mineral Hydrocarbons in Food) Regulations, 1972 (S.I. No. 45 of 1972); Health (Mineral Hydrocarbons in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992 (S.I. No. 71 of 1992): these Regulations provide (subject to certain exemptions) that the use of any mineral hydrocarbon in the manufacture or preparation of food and the importation, distribution, sale or exposure for sale of any food containing any mineral hydrocarbon is prohibited. The prohibition does not extend to chewing gum and other products, for which maximum limits of mineral hydrocarbon are prescribed. Specifications are set out for mineral hydrocarbon.

    Therefore, although much effort has been made to cover provisions as much as possible, it is important to note that there may be other legislation where requirements are placed on contaminants that are not covered in this section. For this information please consult the other legislation sections on the FSAI website or the Eur-Lex website.

    Sampling and Analysis Regulations

    In order to check the compliance of a food with the maximum levels laid down in the legislation, food must be sampled and analysed in a standardised and reliable way. For this purpose, sampling and analysis Regulations have been implemented to provide standardised approaches for each substance or substance group. The following Regulations are in force:

    • Regulation (EC) No. 333/2007, as amended: lead, cadmium, mercury, inorganic tin, 3-MCPD and benzo(a)pyrene
    • Regulation (EC) No. 401/2006, as amended: mycotoxins
    • Regulation (EU) No. 2017/644: dioxins, dioxin like PCBs and non-dioxin like PCBs
    • Regulation (EC) No. 1882/2006: Nitrate
    • Regulation (EU) No. 2022/1428: perfluoroalkyl substances
  • National legislation

    In Ireland, the EU legislation on contaminants (including sampling and analysis provisions) is given effect by Statutory Instrument No. 218 of 2010 (European Communities (Certain Contaminants in Foodstuffs) Regulations, 2010). The amendments to this Regulation can be found in the following Statutory Instruments: S.I. No. 276 of 2012, S.I. No. 348 of 2012, S.I. No. 380 of 2013, S.I. No. 143 of 2014, S.I. No. 329 of 2016, S.I. No. 377 of 2017

    For some contaminants more extensive or specific national legislation also exists that is not currently covered by EU legislation, however, any existing national provision is automatically superseded once EU legislation has come into force.

      • Health (Arsenic & Lead in Food) Regulations, 1972  (S.I. No. 44 of 1972); Health (Arsenic & Lead in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992  (S.I. No. 72 of 1992): These Regulations set an overall maximum limit for lead and arsenic in food (with some exceptions), and food specific maximum levels. There are however overlaps with EU regulations, and in those cases, the maximum limit set in Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 , as amended supersedes the national limit.
      • Health (Erucic Acid in Food) Regulations, 1978  (S.I. No. 123 of 1978); Health (Erucic Acid in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992  (S.I. No. 67 of 1992); European Communities (Erucic Acid in Food) (Method of Analysis) Regulations, 1982  (S.I. No. 271 of 1982): These Regulations specify limits for the erucic acid content of oil and fat and of food to which oil or fat has been added. The method of analysis determines the erucic acid content of oils, fats and compound foodstuffs to which oils and fats have been added. The maximum levels set by these Regulations have been superseded by Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 , as amended and Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for infant formula and follow-on formula and as regards requirements on information relating to infant and young child feeding, as amended.
      • Health (Tin in Food) Regulations, 1993 (S.I. No. 389 of 1993): These Regulations stipulate that the level of tin in food shall not exceed 200 milligrams per kilogram of food. However, more strict maximum levels have been set in Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006, as amended, which supersede this maximum limit.
      • Health (Mineral Hydrocarbons in Food) Regulations, 1972  (S.I. No. 45 of 1972); Health (Mineral Hydrocarbons in Food) (Amendment) Regulations, 1992 (S.I. No. 71 of 1992): These Regulations provide (subject to certain exemptions) that the use of any mineral hydrocarbon in the manufacture or preparation of food and the importation, distribution, sale or exposure for sale of any food containing any mineral hydrocarbon is prohibited. The prohibition does not extend to chewing gum and other products, for which maximum levels of mineral hydrocarbon are prescribed. Specifications are set out for mineral hydrocarbon.

    Although much effort has been made to cover provisions on contaminants in this section, it is important to note that there may be other legislation where requirements are placed on contaminants. For this information please consult the other legislation sections on the FSAI website or the Eur-Lex website.

  • Full list of contaminants included in Regulation 2023/915

    The following section provides an overview of the contaminants covered in the Annex to Regulation (EC) No 2023/915 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158, and where relevant refers to other legislation providing maximum limits on the contaminants listed. Please note, however, that contaminants not included in the Annex of Regulation 2023/915.

    Please see section called -  “To note - other Legislation containing provisions on contaminants” and which may have been included in other legal instruments may not be covered by this list (e.g., hydroxymethylfurfural in honey, methanol in spirit drinks):

  • Section 1: Mycotoxins

    Mycotoxins - information about each of the contaminants listed below are found on the Mycotoxins' page.

    • Aflatoxins
    • Ochratoxin A
    • Patulin
    • Deoxynivalenol
    • Zearalenone
    • Fumonisins
    • Citrinin
    • Ergot sclerotia and ergot alkaloids
  • Section 2: Plant toxins

    Plant toxins

    • Erucic acid, including erucic acid bound in fat
    • Tropane alkaloids
    • Hydrocyanic acid, including hydrocyanic acid bound in cyanogenic glycosides
    • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
    • Opium alkaloids
    • Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) equivalents
  • Section 3: Metals
    • Lead
    • Cadmium
    • Mercury
    • Arsenic
    • Tin (inorganic)
  • Section 4: 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and glycidyl fatty acid esters
    • 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD and 3-MCPD fatty acid esters
    • Glycidyl fatty acid esters expressed as glycidol

     

  • Section 5: Dioxins and PCBs
  • Section 6: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a class of diverse organic compounds, each of them containing two or more aromatic rings. Hundreds of different compounds may be formed and released during a variety of combustion and pyrolysis processes, including under certain food preparation and cooking conditions, e.g., smoking, grilling, and roasting.

    Regulatory Information

    EU legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No. 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: Regulation EC) No. 333/2007

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    National legislation

    Statutory Instrument No. 218 of 2010 as amended (S.I. No. 276 of 2012, S.I. No. 348 of 2012, S.I. No. 380 of 2013, S.I. No. 143 of 2014, S.I. No. 329 of 2016S.I. No. 377 of 2017)

  • Section 7: Melamine and its structural analogues

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine, CAS No. 108-78-1) is produced as a high volume chemical. It can be present in food as a result of uses in food contact materials, including articles made of melamine-formaldehyde plastics, can coatings, paper and board and adhesives. Melamine may also occur in food as a metabolite and degradation product of cyromazine. Depending on the purification process, melamine may contain different levels of the structurally related substances cyanuric acid, ammeline and ammelide. Cyanuric acid residues can also occur in food as a result of use of dichloroisocyanurates as a source of active chlorine in disinfection agents. Melamine and cyanuric acid can be present as impurities in urea-based feed for ruminants.

    Regulatory Information

    EU legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No. 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants' Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, as amended

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    National legislation

    Statutory Instrument No. 218 of 2010 as amended (S.I. No. 276 of 2012, S.I. No. 348 of 2012, S.I. No. 380 of 2013, S.I. No. 143 of 2014, S.I. No. 329 of 2016S.I. No. 377 of 2017)

  • Section 8: Inherent plant toxins

    Inherent plant toxins

    Erucic acid

    Tropane alkaloids

    Hydrocyanic acid, including hydrocyanic acid bound in cyanogenic glycosides

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

    Opium alkaloids

    Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid (22:1 n-9). Erucic acid is mainly present in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae family, which includes important seed crops such as rapeseed and mustards, and also important vegetable crops such as the diverse group of kales, cabbages and turnips. Brassica vegetables may contain only traces of erucic acid, while the seeds contain high levels. Cultivars of Brassicaceae with very low erucic acid content have been developed for seed oil production for food and feed use.

    Regulatory Information

    EU legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force)as amended

    Other legislation setting MLs:

    • Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for infant formula and follow-on formula and as regards requirements on information relating to infant and young child feeding, as amended.

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/705 of 30 April 2015 laying down methods of sampling and performance criteria for the methods of analysis for the official control of the levels of erucic acid in foodstuffs and repealing Commission Directive 80/891/EEC.

    A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food and repealing Regulation (EU) 2015/705 is under discussion at EU level.

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    National legislation

    Tropane alkaloids

    Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are secondary metabolites which naturally occur in plants of several families including Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae and Convolvulaceae. Datura stramonium, commonly called thorn apple or Jimson weed, belongs to the genus Datura within the Solanaceae family and is well known for its content of TAs. Seeds of this plant have been found as impurities in agricultural crops such as linseed, soybean, millet, sunflower and buckwheat and products made from these crops. TAs are found in all parts of the plants and comprise more than 200 compounds. However, data on their occurrence in food and feed and on toxicity are limited. The most studied TAs are (-)-hyoscyamine and (-)-scopolamine, which are formed naturally. The racemic mixture of (-)-hyoscyamine and (+)-hyoscyamine is called atropine.

    Regulatory Information

    EU legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Monitoring Recommendation: Commission Recommendation (EU) 2015/976

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food is under discussion at EU level.

    Available guidance documents:

    FAO/WHO Guidance document on physical Datura stramonium seed contamination
    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No. 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Monitoring Recommendation: Commission Recommendation (EU) 2015/976

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food is under discussion at EU level.

    Available guidance documents:

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    National legislation

    Statutory Instrument No. 218 of 2010 as amended (S.I. No. 276 of 2012, S.I. No. 348 of 2012, S.I. No. 380 of 2013, S.I. No. 143 of 2014, S.I. No. 329 of 2016S.I. No. 377 of 2017)

    Hydrocyanic acid, including hydrocyanic acid bound in cyanogenic glycosides

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) contain chemically bound cyanide groups and are present in numerous plants such as almonds, linseed, lima beans and cassava. CNGs are stable in the intact plants because their degrading enzymes are stored in different cellular compartments. When the plant cells are damaged, for example by grinding or chewing, CNGs and enzymes are brought in contact and cyanide is released. The term ‘cyanide’ comprises both cyanide ions and undissociated hydrocyanic acid (hydrogen cyanide). Depending on their chemical structure, different CNGs release different amounts of cyanide.

    Regulatory Information

    EU Legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs:Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Other legislation setting MLs

    • Regulation (EU) 2019/787 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on the definition, description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks, the use of the names of spirit drinks in the presentation and labelling of other foodstuffs, the protection of geographical indications for spirit drinks, the use of ethyl alcohol and distillates of agricultural origin in alcoholic beverages, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 110/2008, as amended
    • Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 1601/91, Regulations (EC) No 2232/96 and (EC) No 110/2008 and Directive 2000/13/EC, as amended

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food is under discussion at EU level.

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a large group of natural toxins produced by certain plants as secondary metabolites against herbivores. They are known to be present in more than 6000 plant species. The main sources are the families Boraginaceae (all genera; includes borage, forget-me-not, comfrey), Asteraceae (tribes Senecioneae and Eupatorieae; includes dog daisy, ragwort, groundsel) and Fabaceae (genus Crotalaria; includes rattlepods). Contamination of foodstuffs with PAs may occur unintentionally if plant parts or seeds from PA-producing plants are mixed accidentally with the main crop at harvest.

    Regulatory Information

    EU Legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food is under discussion at EU level.

    Available guidance documents:

    • Codex Code of Practice for Weed Control to Prevent and Reduce Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Contamination in Food and Feed (CXC 74-2014)

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

    Opium alkaloids

    Poppy seeds are obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and are used as food and to produce edible oil. The latex (milky sap) of the opium poppy can contain up to 80 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine, which have been used for the treatment of severe pain for generations but are also subject to misuse. Alkaloid accumulation in the poppy plant depends on both genetic factors and environmental/cultivation conditions. Mature poppy seeds do not contain the latex but can become contaminated with opium alkaloids as a result of pest damage and during harvest.

    Regulatory Information

    EU legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93, as amended

    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended

    Analysis Regulation: A specific Commission Implementing Regulation on the sampling and analysis of plant toxins in food is under discussion at EU level.

    Available EU guidance documents:

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page link to import control page.

  • Section 9: Perchlorate

    Perchlorate occurs naturally in the environment, in deposits of nitrate and potash, and can be formed in the atmosphere and precipitate into soil and groundwater. It also occurs as an environmental contaminant arising from the use of nitrate fertilisers and from the manufacture, use and disposal of ammonium perchlorate used in rocket propellants, explosives, fireworks, flares and air-bag inflators and in other industrial processes. Perchlorate can also be formed during the degradation of sodium hypochlorite used to disinfect water and can contaminate water supplies. Water, soil and fertilisers are considered to be potential sources of perchlorate contamination in food. The perchlorate ion (ClO4¬) is very stable in water, and its salts are highly soluble in water.

    Regulatory Information

    EU Legislation

    Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation (EEC) No 315/93, as amended
    Contaminants Legislation setting MLs: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 (no longer in force), as amended (no longer in force)
    Monitoring Recommendation: Commission Recommendation 2015/682
    Sampling & Analysis Regulation: Regulation (EC) No. 333/2007, as amended

    Increased Control Measures: For potentially applicable emergency measures and temporary increased controls please see the relevant page

  • Other Undesirable Substances

    Mineral Hydrocarbons - National Legislation

    Health (Mineral Hydrocarbons in Food) Regulations, 1972 (S.I. No. 45 of 1972)

    Amended by

    These Regulations provide (subject to certain exemptions) that the use of any mineral hydrocarbon in the manufacture or preparation of food and the importation, distribution, sale or exposure for sale of any food containing any mineral hydrocarbon is prohibited. The prohibition does not extend to chewing gum and other products, for which maximum limits of mineral hydrocarbon are prescribed. Specifications are set out for mineral hydrocarbon. Where a sample of food has been certified by a public analyst not to comply with these Regulations, an authorised officer may seize, remove and detain such food as being food which is unfit for human consumption and in certain circumstances, destroy it.

    Furan - EU legislation

    Furan - A colorless, volatile, heterocyclic organic compound, C4H4O, obtained from wood oils and used primarily in organic synthesis

    Commission Recommendations

    Commission Recommendation 2007/196/EC (OJ L 88, p56, 29.03.2007) of 28 March 2007 on the monitoring of the presence of furan in foodstuffs

    Commission Recommendation 2007/196/EC recommends that Member States perform during the years 2007 and 2008 monitoring on the presence of furan in foodstuffs that have undergone heat treatment. The monitoring should include commercial foodstuffs as purchased disregarding any further preparation and commercial foodstuffs analysed as consumed after further preparation in the laboratory. It recommends that Member States follow the sampling procedures as laid down in Part B of the Annex to Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 in order to ensure that samples are representative for the sampled lot. Sample preparation before analysis should be carried out with the necessary care to ensure that the furan content of the sample is not altered. The analysis of furan should be carried out in accordance with points 1 and 2 of Annex III to Regulation (EU) No. 2017/685.